San Jesús Malverde de Sinaloa.
"Today, prostrate and before your cross, Oh, Malverde, my lord, I beg you for mercy and relief from my pain. You who dwell in Glory and are close to God."
Without God or Law: narcotrafficking and belief in Jesus Malverde.
The most important Mexican drug cartels have deep roots in Sinaloa state. Notorious drug lords (Jefes de Jefes) such as Miguel Félix Gallardo, Ernesto (Don Neto) Fonseca, Rafael Caro Quintero, Amado (El Señor de los Cielos) Carrillo Fuente, José Luis (El Güero) Palma, Joaquín (El Chapo) Guzmán, Ismael (El Mayo) Zambada and the Arellano Félix brothers all have strong family ties to a specific region of this State. Sinaloan institutions, social customs, and cultural references (material and symbolic) are permeated with drug referents and signifiers. Cultural references to drugs are badly misunderstood by non-Mexicans- especially by formal agents who purport to identify and control the drug trade. Misunderstanding prevails even though some Mexican scholars have described the Sinaloan context (especially Luis Astorga), and have presented cogent analyses of important cultural referents such as narcocorridos (Valenzuela). This essay explores the links between religion and the drug trade, specifically as religious ideas are expressed in the worship of a mythical drug saint named Jesús Malverde. The Capilla de Malverde is located in Culiacán, but other centers exist in Los Angeles, Colombia and Venezuela. Sykes and Matza's older ideas about subterranean values and neutralization are reconsidered in light of Malverde's appeal to specific drug workers such as burreros (smugglers) or productores/gomeros (growers). Worship of Jesús Malverde illustrates limitations of neutralization theory as it has traditionally been interpreted.
The Irony of Broken Windows: The Relationship Between Disorder, Focused Police Crackdowns and Fear of Crime
Living on a street segment at the maximum level of disorder corresponded to having a much higher probability of feeling unsafe than a segment at the minimum level of disorder. This suggests that the relationship between disorder and fear hypothesized by the broken windows literature may exist, and that police may be able to reduce fear of crime by reducing disorder. However, it was also found that the police intervention itself increased the probability of feeling unsafe. Thus any fear reduction benefits resulting from focused police crackdowns on disorder and minor crime may be at least partially offset by the extra police presence itself causing residents to become more fearful.
Mexico's drug smugglers' patron saint, Jesus Malverde, no longer their own
In Mexico, the illegal drug trade has taken control. We are in the middle of a violent civil drug war. On a daily basis we hear of violence, kidnappings, and executions. In a deeply religious country, one wonders how could such hate, bloodbath, and evil exist. The answer may surprise you. Not only our nation’s drug traffickers and cartels, but rich and poor common citizens alike are beginning to have faith, seek intervention, and take refuge behind the drug smuggler’s own patron saint Jesus Malverde.